Planning involves establishing the main objectives or outcomes of the work. It entails detailing the tasks that need to be achieved and the methods for accomplishing them. Planning provides a strong focus and framework for any project or task. It comprises the following elements:
Estimating future needs and requirements. For example, market growth, market share, customer demand, profit and revenue streams, return on investment etc.
Establishing the results that have to be achieved. For example, increasing production, sales, profitability, reducing costs by x% or service response times by y%.
Establishing the priorities and sequence of actions needed to achieve the stated objectives. What is the order in which tasks and initiatives need to happen?
the necessary resources to deliver the objectives and outcomes – people,
equipment and finance. For example, a financial budget of $1.5 million and a project
team of 22 people supported by eight contract workers.
Developing and applying standardized methods and processes for executing the work. For example, what project management or process control systems will be used to drive the project?
This function involves establishing formal structures of authority so that tasks and activities can be defined and co-ordinated amongst the people involved. Organizing also includes the selection and training of staff to deliver the objectives.
Identifying the right people with the right skills for the tasks and roles to be performed.
Allocating the appropriate levels of responsibility and accountability to people.
Creating the right working atmosphere for the development of strong working relationships and high performance team working.
These activities involve:
Making effective decisions in a timely and appropriate manner. COMMUNICATING
a shared understanding of the key goals and objectives through the use of
appropriate communications channels.
Energizing people on a collective basis and leading them to deliver high levels of performance even when faced with setbacks and obstacles.
Advising team members on how they can fully develop their skills and capabilities to increase their value and realize their full potential.
This function involves monitoring any work in progress so as to ensure results are ultimately delivered. It entails inspecting projects and work plans and driving any financial planning, accounting or controlling procedures. The function also involves advising and reporting to senior managers on progress.
Establishing the criteria by which work processes, tasks and results will be assessed and measured.
Recording and reporting on progress to see if the work is meeting the required time, cost and quality requirements.
Evaluating and appraising the work and results achieved.
Taking timely and corrective action to improve working methods and performance results.
The POSCoRB model of management has had a huge influence on management thinking and has resulted in many of today’s standard management practices. The manager as a controller and director of people and resources has been applied in most organizations for the last few decades.